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Diseases Transmitted by the Black-Legged Ticks in the United States: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature

The black-legged tick is endemic to the midwestern, northeastern, western, south-eastern, and southern regions of the United States. There has been an increased burden of black-legged ticks in humans in recent years. COVID-19 pandemic has further heightened this burden. We thereby reviewed the literature to discuss the seasonality, infections, and clinical spectrum of diseases transmitted by the black-legged ticks. We also discuss the reported delay in the diagnosis of these diseases during the

Use of Epoprostenol in the Treatment of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension

Pulmonary Hypertension (PH) is defined as a disorder in which the mean Pulmonary Arterial Pressure (mPAP) is greater than 20 mmHg at rest. Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH) is considered when mPAP is > 20 mmHg and pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR) is ⩾ 3 WU. PAH is a chronic progressive disease resulting in right heart failure and premature death. It is postulated to be due to an inactivating mutation of a gene named bone morphogenetic protein receptor type 2 (BMPR2), whose predominant fun

Thymosin alpha 1: A comprehensive review of the literature

Thymosin alpha 1 is a peptide naturally occurring in the thymus that has long been recognized for modifying, enhancing, and restoring immune function. Thymosin alpha 1 has been utilized in the treatment of immunocompromised states and malignancies, as an enhancer of vaccine response, and as a means of curbing morbidity and mortality in sepsis and numerous infections. Studies have postulated that thymosin alpha 1 could help improve the outcome in severely ill corona virus disease 2019 patients by